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In adults usually infected (fungal or bacterial) dermatitis, often with offensive discharge.

Precautions: consider umbilical fistula, carcinoma, umbilical calculus.


  • Swab for micro and culture

  • Toilet—remove all debris and clean

  • Keep dry and clean—daily dressings

  • Consider Kenacomb ointment


Apply a caustic pencil gently daily for about 5 d.


A testis that is not in the scrotum may be ectopic, absent, retractile or truly undescended.

The problem of non-descent

  • Testicular dysplasia

  • Susceptible to direct violence (if in inguinal region)

  • Risk of malignant change (seminoma) is 5–10 times greater than normal

Optimal time for assessment

Between 3 and 6 mths (before development of cremasteric reflex and thus confusion with a retractile testis)

Review 2½–3 yrs—?acquired maldescent


  • All undescended testes by 6 mths

  • Acquired maldescent

  • Concerned parents

  • Doubtful position of testis

Optimal time for surgery

The optimal time for orchidopexy is 6–12 mths. Production of spermatozoa is adversely affected in undescended testes from 2 yrs onwards. Exploration for the uncommon impalpable testis is worthwhile.

Hormone injections

Injections of chorionic gonadotrophic hormones are generally not recommended. They are ineffective except for borderline retractile testes.


Leads to increased cardiovascular disease, death rate and psychiatric illness.

   Objective is to prevent resignation, hopelessness and deterioration of health.

Encourage positive outlook with readiness to re-enter labour force.

Vulnerable groups

  • School leavers, esp. non-achievers (beware of impulsive overdoses)

  • History of psychosomatic or physical disability

  • Children of the unemployed

  • Previous problematic marriages

  • Men with many dependants

  • Those >50 yrs with good job records

Role of GP

  • Diagnostic awareness

  • Foreshadow problems

  • Caring, supportive counselling (very powerful)

  • Liaison with social services


Can be classified as gonococcal or non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). NGU is caused most commonly by Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium; however, it is common to not find any cause.


  • First-pass urine (FPU) for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea NAAT

  • If discharge, urethral swab for microscopy and culture


  • Treat with doxycycline 100 mg (o) bd for 7 d while waiting for results

  • If N.Gonorrhoea detected, treat with ceftriaxone 500 mg IM and azithromycin 1 g (o) as a single dose

  • If tests are negative and symptoms persist, consider referral (depending on access) for first-pass urine NAAT testing for Mycoplasma genitalium, HSV and adenovirus

  • Female ...

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