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In its beginning the malady is easier to cure but difficult to detect, but later it becomes easy to detect but difficult to cure.


Bacterial infections can present diagnostic brain-teasers, and a high index of suspicion is needed to pinpoint the diagnosis. Many are rarely encountered, thus making diagnosis more difficult yet demanding vigilance and clinical flexibility.

The list includes:

  • tuberculosis

  • infective endocarditis

  • syphilis

  • septicaemia

  • the zoonoses (e.g. brucellosis, Lyme disease)

  • clostridial infections: tetanus, gas gangrene, puerperal infection, botulism, pseudomembranous colitis (C. difficile)

  • hidden suppuration: abscess, osteomyelitis

  • mycoplasma infections: atypical pneumonia

  • Chlamydia infections: psittacosis, non-specific arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, trachoma, atypical pneumonia

  • legionnaire disease

  • Hansen disease (see CHAPTER 129)

Chlamydia and rickettsial organisms have been confirmed as being small bacterial organisms.


Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still has a worldwide distribution with a very high prevalence in Asian countries where 60–80% of children below the age of 14 years are affected.1 This has special implication in Australia, where large numbers of Asian migrants are settling. The WHO estimates that one-third of the world’s population is infected by the tubercle bacillus, with 10 million new cases in 2019. It remains a deadly disease, with about 1.5 million people worldwide dying of TB every year and 10 million new cases a year.

Clinical features

TB can be a mimic of other diseases and a high level of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis, especially if there are only extrapulmonary manifestations. There may be no symptoms or signs, even in advanced disease, and may be detected by mass screening. Ideally patients should be referred early for specialist management.

Respiratory symptoms

  • Cough

  • Sputum: initially mucoid, later purulent

  • Haemoptysis

  • Dyspnoea (esp. with complications

  • Pleuritic pain

General clinical features (usually insidious)

  • Anorexia

  • Fatigue

  • Weight loss

  • Fever (low grade)

  • Night sweats

Physical examination

  • May be no respiratory signs or may be signs of fibrosis, consolidation or cavitation (amphoric breathing)

  • Finger clubbing

High-risk people/situations

  • Newborn and infants

  • Adults over 60 years

  • Patients with HIV/AIDS

  • Chronic disease, e.g. diabetes

  • Crowded or unsanitary living conditions

  • People affected by alcohol and drugs

  • Immigrants and refugees from endemic countries (especially Indian subcontinent, Papua New Guinea, South-East Asia, Sub Sahara and South Africa)


DxT malaise + cough + weight loss ± fever/night sweats + haemoptysis pulmonary TB

Primary infection

The primary infection usually involves the lungs. Transmission is by droplet infection. The focus is usually subpleural in the upper to mid zones and ...

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