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AAA

abdominal aortic aneurysm

AAFP

American Academy of Family Physicians

ABA

Australian Breastfeeding Association

ABC

airway, breathing, circulation

ABCD

airway, breathing, circulation, dextrose

ABFP

American Board of Family Practice

ABI

ankle brachial index

ABO

A, B and O blood groups

AC

air conduction

AC

acromioclavicular

ACAH

autoimmune chronic active hepatitis

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACL

anterior cruciate ligament

ACR

albumin creatine ratio

ACTH

adrenocorticotrophic hormone

AD

aortic dissection

AD

autosomal dominant

ADHD

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADLs

activities of daily living

ADT

adult diphtheria vaccine

AF

atrial fibrillation

AFI

amniotic fluid index

AFP

alpha-fetoprotein

AI

aortic incompetence

AICD

automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AIIRA

angiotension II(2) reuptake antagonist

AKF

acute kidney failure

ALE

average life expectancy

ALL

acute lymphocytic leukaemia

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

ALTE

apparent life-threatening episode

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

AML

acute myeloid leukaemia

ANA

antinuclear antibody

ANCA

antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANF

antinuclear factor

a/n/v

anorexia/nausea/vomiting

AP

anterior–posterior

APF

Australian pharmaceutical formulary

APH

ante-partum haemorrhage

APRI

AST to platelet ratio index

aPTT

activated partial thromboplastin time

AR

autosomal recessive

ARB

angiotension II receptor blocker

ARC

AIDS-related complex

ARDS

adult respiratory distress syndrome

ARR

absolute risk reduction

ART

anti-retroviral therapy

ASD

atrial septal defect

ASIS

anterior superior iliac spine

ASOT

antistreptolysin 0 titre

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

ATFL

anterior talofibular ligament

AV

atrioventricular

AVM

arteriovenous malformation

AZT

azidothymidine

BC

bone conduction

BCC

basal cell carcinoma

BCG

bacille Calmette–Guérin

bDMARDs

biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs

BMD

bone mass density

BMI

body mass index

BNP

B-type natriuretic peptide

BOO

bladder outlet obstruction

BP

blood pressure

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

bpm

beats per minute

BPPV

benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

BSE

breast self-examination

Ca

carcinoma

CABG

coronary artery bypass grafting

CAD

coronary artery disease

CAP

community-acquired pneumonia

CBE

clinical breast examination

CBT

cognitive behaviour therapy

CCB

calcium-channel blocker

CCF

congestive cardiac failure

CCP

cyclic citrinullated peptide

CCT

controlled clinical trial

CCU

coronary care unit

CD4

T helper cell

CD8

T suppressor cell

CDT

combined diphtheria/tetanus vaccine

CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen

CFL

calcaneofibular ligament

CFS

chronic fatigue syndrome

cfu

colony forming unit

CHC

combined hormonal contraception

CHD

coronary heart disease

CHF

chronic heart failure

CI

confidence interval

CIN

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CJD

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

CK

creatinine kinase

CK–MB

creatinine kinase–myocardial bound fraction

CKD

chronic kidney disease

CKF

chronic kidney failure

CMC

carpometacarpal

CML

chronic myeloid leukaemia

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CNS

central nervous system

co

compound

COAD

chronic obstructive airways disease

COC

combined oral contraceptive

COCP

combined oral contraceptive pill

COMT

catechol-O-methyl transferase

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COX

cyclooxygenase

CPA

cardiopulmonary arrest

CPAP

continuous positive airways pressure

CPK

creatine phosphokinase

CPPD

calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPS

complex partial seizures

CR

controlled release

CRD

computerised reference database system

CREST

calcinosis cutis; Raynaud phenomenon; oesophageal involvement; sclerodactyly; telangiectasia

CRF

chronic renal failure

CRFM

chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria

CRH

corticotrophin-releasing hormone

CR(K)F

chronic renal (kidney) failure

CRP

C-reactive protein

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

CSFM

chloroquine-sensitive falciparum malaria

CSIs

COX-2 specific inhibitors

CSU

catheter specimen of urine

CT

computerised tomography

CTD

connective tissue disorder

CTG

cardiotocograph

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

CVA

cerebrovascular accident

CVS

cardiovascular system

CXR

chest X-ray

DAA

direct-acting antivirals

DBP

diastolic blood pressure

DC

direct current

DDAVP

desmopressin acetate

DDH

developmental dysplasia of the hip

DDP

dipeptidyl peptidase

DEXA

dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

DHEA

dihydroepiandrosterone

DI

diabetes insipidus

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DIDA

di-imino diacetic acid

DIMS

disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep

DIP

distal interphalangeal

dL

decilitre

DMARDs

disease modifying antirheumatic drugs

DNA

deoxyribose-nucleic acid

DOACs

direct acting anti-coagulants

DOM

direction of movement

DRE

digital rectal examination

DRABC

defibrillation, resuscitation, airway, breathing, circulation

drug dosage

bd—twice daily; tid, tds—three times daily; qid—four times daily

ds

double strand

DS

double strength

DSM

diagnostic and statistical manual (of mental disorders)

DU

duodenal ulcer

DUB

dysfunctional uterine bleeding

DVT

deep venous thrombosis

DxT

diagnostic triad

EAR

expired air resuscitation

EBM

Epstein–Barr mononucleosis (glandular fever)

EBNA

Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen

EBV

Epstein–Barr virus

ECC

external chest compression

ECG

electrocardiogram

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

ED

emergency department

EDD

expected due date

EEG

electroencephalogram

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EMG

electromyogram

ENA

extractable nuclear antigen

EO

ethinyloestradiol

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

EPL

extensor pollicis longus

EPS

expressed prostatic secretions

ER

external rotation

ESRF

end-stage renal failure

ESR(K)F

end-stage renal (kidney) failure

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

esp.

especially

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ET

embryo transfer

ETT

endotracheal tube

FAD

familial Alzheimer disease

FAI

femeroacetabular impingement

FAP

familial adenomatous polyposis

FB

foreign body

FBE

full blood count

FDIU

fetal death in utero

FDL

flexor digitorum longus

FEV1

forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FHL

flexor hallucis longus

fL

femto-litre (10–15)

FOBT

faecal occult blood test

FRAX

fracture risk assessment tool

FRC

functional residual capacity

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone

FTA–ABS

fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test

FTT

failure to thrive

FUO

fever of undetermined origin

FVC

forced vital capacity

FXS

fragile X syndrome

g

gram

GA

general anaesthetic

GABHS

group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus

GBS

Guillain–Barré syndrome

GCA

giant cell arteritis

GESA

Gastroenterological Society of Australia

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

GGT

gamma-glutamyl transferase

GHJ

glenohumeral joint

GI

glycaemic index

GIFT

gamete intrafallopian transfer

GIT

gastrointestinal tract

GLP

glucagon-like peptide

GnRH

gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

GO

gastro-oesophageal

GORD

gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

GP

general practitioner

G-6-PD

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GSI

genuine stress incontinence

GU

gastric ulcer

GV

growth velocity

HAV

hepatitis A virus

anti-HAV

hepatitis A antibody

Hb

haemoglobin

HbA

haemoglobin A

anti-HBc

hepatitis B core antibody

HBeAg

hepatitis Be antigen

anti-HBs

hepatits B surface antibody

HBsAg

hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

HCV

hepatitis C virus

anti-HCV

hepatitis C virus antibody

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HDV

hepatitis D (Delta) virus

HEV

hepatitis E virus

HFA

hydrofluoro alkane

HFM

hand, foot and mouth

HFV

hepatitis F virus

HGV

hepatitis G virus

HHC

hereditary haemochromatosis

HIDA

hydroxy iminodiacetic acid

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HLA-B27

human leucocyte antigen

HMGCoA

hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA

HNPCC

hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

HPV

human papilloma virus

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

HSIL

high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

HSP

Henoch–Schönlein purpura

HSV

herpes simplex viral infection

H

hypertension

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome

ICE

ice, compression, elevation

ICHPPC

International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care

ICS

inhaled corticosteroid

ICS

intercondylar separation

ICSI

intracytoplasmic sperm injection

ICT

immunochromatographic test

IDDM

insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

IDU

injecting drug user

IgA

immunoglobulin A

IgE

immunoglobulin E

IgG

immunoglobulin G

IgM

immunoglobulin M

IGRA

interferon gamma release assay

IHD

ischaemic heart disease

IHS

International Headache Society

IM, IMI

intramuscular injection

IMS

intermalleolar separation

inc.

including

INCS

intranasal corticosteroids

INR

international normalised ratio

IOC

International Olympic Committee

IOFB

intraocular foreign body

IP

interphalangeal

IPPV

intermittent positive pressure variation

IR

internal rotation or immediate release

ITP

idiopathic (or immune) thrombocytopenia purpura

IUCD

intrauterine contraceptive device

IUGR

intrauterine growth retardation

IV

intravenous

IVF

in-vitro fertilisation

IVI

intravenous injection

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

IVU

intravenous urogram

JIA

juvenile idiopathic arthritis

JVP

jugular venous pulse

KA

keratoacanthoma

KFT

kidney function test

kg

kilogram

KOH

potassium hydroxide

KS

Kaposi sarcoma

KUB-CT

kidney ureter bladder scan

LA

local anaesthetic

LABA

long-acting beta agonist

LBBB

left branch bundle block

LBO

large bowel obstruction

LBP

low back pain

LCR

ligase chain reaction

LDH/LH

lactic dehydrogenase

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LFTs

liver function tests

LH

luteinising hormone

LHRH

luteinising hormone releasing hormone

LIF

left iliac fossa

LMN

lower motor neurone

LNG

levonorgestrel

LPC

liquor picis carbonis

LRTI

lower respiratory tract infection

LSD

lysergic acid

LSIL

low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

LSS

lumbar spinal canal stenosis

LUQ

left upper quadrant

LUT

lower urinary tract

LUTS

lower urinary tract symptoms

LV

left ventricular

LVH

left ventricular hypertrophy

MAIS

Mycobacterium avium intracellulare or M. sacrofulaceum

mane

in morning

MAOI

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAST

medical anti-shock trousers

MB

myocardial base

mcg

micrograms (also μg)

MCL

medial collateral ligament

MCP

metacarpal phalangeal

MCU

microscopy and culture of urine

MCV

mean corpuscular volume

MDI

metered dose inhaler

MDMA

methylenedioxymethamphetamine

MDR

multi-drug resistant TB

MG

myaesthenia gravis

MHT

menopause hormone therapy

MI

myocardial infarction

MIC

mitral incompetence

MID

minor intervertebral derangement

MMSE

mini mental state examination

MND

motor neurone disease

MRCP

magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MRSA

methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

MS

multiple sclerosis

MSM

men who have sex with men

MSST

maternal serum screening test

MSU

midstream urine

MTP

metatarsophalangeal

MVA

motor vehicle accident

N

normal

N saline

normal saline

NAAT

nucleic acid amplification technology

NAD

no abnormality detected

NCDs

non-communicable diseases

NET

norethisterone

NF

neurofibromatosis

NGU

non-gonococcal urethritis

NHL

non-Hodgkin lymphoma

NH&MRC

National Health and Medical Research Council

NIDDM

non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

NNT

numbers needed to treat

nocte

at night

NR

normal range

NRT

nicotine replacement therapy

NSAIDs

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

NSCLC

non-small cell lung cancer

NSTEACS

non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

NSU

non-specific urethritis

NTT

nuchal translucency test

NVDPA

National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance

(o)

taken orally

OA

osteoarthritis

OCP

oral contraceptive pill

OGTT

oral glucose tolerance test

OSA

obstructive sleep apnoea

OSD

Osgood–Schlatter disorder

OT

occupational therapist

OTC

over the counter

PA

posterior–anterior

PAD

peripheral arterial disease

PAN

polyarteritis nodosa

Pap

Papanicolaou

PBG

porphobilinogen

PBS

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme

pc

after meals

PCA

percutaneous continuous analgesia

PCB

post coital bleeding

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

PCL

posterior cruciate ligament

PCOS

polycystic ovarian syndrome

PCP

pneumocystitis pneumonia

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PCV

packed cell volume

PD

Parkinson disease

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus

PDD

pervasive development disorders

PEF

peak expiratory flow

PEFR

peak expiratory flow rate

PET

pre-eclamptic toxaemia

PET

positron emission tomography

PFO

patent foramen ovale

PFT

pulmonary function test

PGL

persistent generalised lymphadenopathy

PH

past history

PHR

personal health record

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

PIP

proximal interphalangeal

PJP

pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

PKU

phenylketonuria

PLISSIT

permission: limited information: specific suggestion: intensive therapy

PLMs

periodic limb movements

PMDD

premenstrual dysphoric disorder

PMS

premenstrual syndrome

PMT

premenstrual tension

PaO2

partial pressure oxygen (arterial blood)

POP

plaster of Paris

POP

progestogen-only pill

PPI

proton-pump inhibitor

PPROM

preterm premature rupture of membranes

PR

per rectum

prn

as and when needed

PRNG

penicillin-resistant gonococci

PROM

premature rupture of membranes

PSA

prostate specific antigen

PSGN

post streptococcal glomerulonephritis

PSIS

posterior superior iliac spine

PSVT

paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

PT

prothrombin time

PTC

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PTFL

posterior talofibular ligament

PU

peptic ulcer

PUO

pyrexia of undetermined origin

PUVA

psoralen + UVA

pv

per vagina

PVC

polyvinyl chloride

PVD

peripheral vascular disease

qds, qid

four times daily

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RACGP

Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

RAP

recurrent abdominal pain

RBBB

right branch bundle block

RBC

red blood cell

RCT

randomised controlled trial

RF

rheumatic fever

Rh

rhesus

RIB

rest in bed

RICE

rest, ice, compression, elevation

RIF

right iliac fossa

RPR

rapid plasma reagin

RR

relative risk

RRR

relative risk reduction

RSD

reflex sympathetic dystrophy

RSI

repetition strain injury

RSV

respiratory syncytial virus

RT

reverse transcriptase

rtPA

recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

RUQ

right upper quadrant

s

serum

SABA

short-acting beta agonist

SAH

subarachnoid haemorrhage

SARS

severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

SBE

subacute bacterial endocarditis

SBO

small bowel obstruction

SBP

systolic blood pressure

SC/SCI

subcutaneous/subcutaneous injection

SCC

squamous cell carcinoma

SCFE

slipped capital femoral epiphysis

SCG

sodium cromoglycate

SCLC

small cell lung cancer

SERM

selective estrogen receptor modulator

SIADH

syndrome of secretion of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome

SIJ

sacroiliac joint

SL

sublingual

SLD

specific learning disability

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SLR

straight leg raising

SND

sensorineural deafness

SNHL

sensorineural hearing loss

SNPs

single nucleotide polymorphisms

SNRI

serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor

SOB

shortness of breath

SLS

salt-losing state

sp

species

SPA

suprapubic aspirate of urine

SPECT

single photon emission computerised tomography

SPF

sun penetration factor

SR

sustained release

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSS

sick sinus syndrome

statim

at once

STEMI

ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

STI

sexually transmitted infection

STS

sodium tetradecyl sulfate

SUFE

slipped upper femoral epiphysis

SVC

superior vena cava

SVT

supraventricular tachycardia

T3

tri-iodothyronine

T4

thyroxine

TA

temporal arteritis

TB

tuberculosis

TCA

tricyclic antidepressant

tds, tid

three times daily

TENS

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

TFTs

thyroid function tests

TG

triglyceride

TIA

transient ischaemic attack

TIBC

total iron binding capacity

TM

tympanic membrane

TMJ

temporomandibular joint

TNF

tissue necrosis factor

TOE

transoesophageal echocardiography

TOF

tracheo-oesophageal fistula

TORCH

toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus

TPHA

Treponema pallidum haemaglutination test

TSE

testicular self-examination

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

TT

thrombin time

TUE

therapeutic use exemption

TUIP

transurethral incision of prostate

TURP

transurethral resection of prostate

TV

tidal volume

U

units

UC

ulcerative colitis

U & E

urea and electrolytes

UGIB

upper gastrointestinal bleeding

μg

microgram

UMN

upper motor neurone

URT

upper respiratory tract

URTI

upper respiratory tract infection

US

ultrasound

UTI

urinary tract infection

U

ultraviolet

VAD

voluntary assisted dying

VAS

visual analogue scale

VBI

vertebrobasilar insufficiency

VC

vital capacity

VDRL

Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory

VF

ventricular fibrillation

VMA

vanillylmandelic acid

VPG

venous plasma glucose

VRE

vancomycin-resistant enterococci

VSD

ventricular septal defect

VT

ventricular tachycardia

VUR

vesicoureteric reflux

VVS

vulvar vestibular syndrome

vWD

von Willebrand disease

WBC

white blood cells

WBR

white → blue → red

WCC

white cell count

WHO

World Health Organization

WPW

Wolff–Parkinson–White

XL

sex linked

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