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These reference values and ranges are given in the system of international units (SI) and may vary from laboratory to laboratory.

An asterisk (*) indicates that paediatric reference ranges differ from the adult range given.

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Electrolytes/renal

Sodium

135–145 mmol/L

Potassium*

3.5–5.0 mmol/L

Chloride

95–110 mmol/L

Bicarbonate

23–32 mmol/L

Urea

3–8.0 mmol/L

Creatinine

♀ 50–110; ♂ 60–120 μmol/L

eGFR

>60 mL/min/1.72 m2

Calcium*

2.10–2.60 mmol/L (total)

Phosphate

0.90–1.35 mmol/L

Magnesium*

0.65–1.00 mmol/L

Uric acid*

♀ 0.12–0.40; ♂ 0.15–0.45 mmol/L

Liver function/pancreas

Bilirubin*

<20 μmol/L (total)

<3 μmol/L (direct)

AST*

<40 U/L

GGT*

♀ <30; ♂ <50 U/L

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)*

25–100 U/L

Total protein

60–80 g/L

Albumin

38–50 g/L

Amylase

30–110 U/L

Lipase

<100 U/L

Glucose

Glucose fasting

3–5.4 mmol/L

Glucose random

3–7.7 mmol/L

HbA1c

4.7–6.1%

Haematology

Hb*

♀ 115–165; ♂ 130–180 g/L

PCV*

♀ 37–47; ♂ 40–54%

MCV*

80–100 fL

Reticulocytes

0.5–2.0%

White cells

4.0–11.0 × 109/L

Platelets

150–400 × 109/L

ESR

<20 mm; <35mm if >70 years

Band neutrophils*

(0.05 × 109/L)

Mature neutrophils*

(2.0–7.5 × 109/L)

Lymphocytes*

(1.0–4.0 × 109/L)

Monocytes*

(0.2–0.8 × 109/L)

Eosinophils*

(0.0–0.4 × 109/L)

Folate

serum 7–45 nmol/L, red cell 360–1400 nmol/L

s Vitamin B12

(150–700 pmol/L)

Coagulation

Bleeding time

2.0–8.5 min

Fibrinogen

2.0–4.0 g/L

Prothrombin time

sec.

Prothrombin ratio INR

1.0–1.2

APTT

25–35 sec

D-dimer

<500 mg/mL

Others

s Creatine phospho kinase

<90 U/L

s Lead

<2 μmol/L

s C–reactive protein

<10 mg/L

Vitamin D

>75 mmol/L

Cardiac/lipids

Troponin I or T

<0.1 ug/L

CK total

♀ <200; ♂ <220 U/L

CK-MB

<25 U/L

Cholesterol*

<5.5 mmol/L

Triglycerides*

<1.7 mmol/L

HDL cholesterol

♀ 1–2.2; ♂ 0.9–2.0 mmol/L

LDL cholesterol

2–3.4 mmol/L

Thyroid tests

Free T4

10.0–25.0 pmol/L

Ultra–sensitive TSH*

0.4–5.0 mU/L

Free T3

3.3–8.2 pmol/L

Other endocrine tests

s Cortisol

8 am 130–700 nmol/L

4 pm 80–350 nmol/L

FSH

1–9 IU/L (adult ♀)

10–30 IU/L (ovulation)

4–200 IU/L (postmenopausal)

Oestradiol menopausal

<200 pmol/L

Testosterone

♀ <3.5; ♂ 10–35 nmol/L

Tumour markers

PSA

0–1.0 mcg/L

CEA

<7.5 mcg/L

AFT

<10 mcg/mL

CA–125

<35 U/mL

Iron studies

Ferritin

♀ 15–200; ♂ 30–300 mcg/L

Iron

10–30 μmol/L

Iron–binding capacity

45–80 μmol/L

Transferrin

2–3.5 g/L

Transferrin saturation

♀ 15–45%; ♂ 15–55%

Blood gases/arterial

pH*

7.38–7.43

PaO2*

85–105 mmHg

PaCO2*

36–44 mmHg

Bicarbonate*

20–28 mmol/L

Base excess*

–3 to +3 mmol/L

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