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This eighth edition published 2022

First edition published 1994, second edition published 1998, third edition published 2003, fourth edition published 2007, fifth edition published 2011, sixth edition published 2015, seventh edition published 2018

Text © 2022 John Murtagh

Illustrations and design © 2022 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd

Additional owners of copyright are acknowledged in on-page credits/on the acknowledgments page.

Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyrighted material. The authors and publishers tender their apologies should any infringement have occurred.

Reproduction and communication for educational purposes

The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the institution (or the body that administers it) has sent a Statutory Educational notice to Copyright Agency (CA) and been granted a licence. For details of statutory educational and other copyright licences contact: Copyright Agency, 66 Goulburn Street, Sydney NSW 2000. Telephone: (02) 9394 7600. Website:

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ISBN: 9781743768235

Published in Australia by

McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd

Level 33, 680 George Street, Sydney NSW 2000

bold>Publisher: Rochelle Deighton

Copyeditor: Julie Wicks

Proofreader: Meredith Lewin

Permissions Manager: Rachel Norton

Cover design: Christa Moffitt, christabella designs

Internal design: David Rosemeyer

Author photograph: Gerrit Fokkema Photography

Illustrators: Alan Laver/Shelly Communications and John Murtagh

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