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ZOONOSES

Zoonoses are those diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans (Table Z1). There is a long list of diseases, which vary from country to country, and includes plague, rabies, scrub typhus, Lyme disease and tularaemia.

Table Z1Major zoonoses in Australia

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Main present features Diagnosis Treatment
Fever, rigors, myalgia, headache, dry cough

PCR

Serology

Doxycycline if endocarditis + clindamycin
Fever, myalgia, severe headache, macular rash, conjunctivitis

PCR

Serology ± culture

Doxycycline or benzylpenicillin IV or IV ceftriaxone
Fever (undulant) sweats, myalgia, headache, lymphadeno-pathy

PCR

Blood culture

Tetracycline + rifampicin or gentamicin
Fever, myalgia, arthritis, backache, doughnut-shaped rash

PCR

Serology

Doxycycline or amoxycillin
Fever, myalgia, headache, dry cough

PCR

Serology

CXR

Doxycycline or clarithromycin
Fever, sweats, weight loss, cough (as for human pulmonary TB) Culture As for pulmonary TB

Mild febrile illness (in most)

Meningo-encephalitis in susceptible (neonates, pregnant, elderly, etc)

PCR

Serology

Amoxycillin
Fever, myalgia, headache, prostration, lymphadenitis (bubo) Smears, culture Doxycycline + streptomycin

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