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Triads and tetrads: these are a group of 3 or 4 key features (symptoms) that point to the probability diagnosis of a particular disorder. They permeate this book as a ‘trigger’ learning strategy.

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+ve

positive

–ve

negative

increase

decrease

female

male

leading to/resulting in

±

with or without

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AAA

aortic abdominal aneurysm

ac

before meals

ABOI

Blood groups ABO incompatibility

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACR

albumin creatinine ratio

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

ACTH

andrenocorticotropic hormone

ADT

adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine

AF

atrial fibrillation

afb

acid fast bacilli

aka

also known as

ALL

acute lymphocytic leukaemia

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

ALTE

apparent life-threatening episode

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

AML

acute myeloid leukaemia

ANA

anti-nuclear antibodies

ANCA

anti-neutrophil cyctoplasmic antibody

anv

anorexia, nausea, vomiting

AOM

acute otitis media

APF

Australian pharmacy formulary

APTT

activated partial thromboplastin time

ARB

angiotensin 11 reuptake blocker

ARC

AIDS-related complex

ASAP

as soon as possible

ATSIP

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

AV

atrioventricular

BMD

bone mass density

BOO

bladder outlet obstruction

BMI

body mass index

BNP

B-type natriuretic peptide

CABG

coronary artery bypass grafting

CBT

cognitive behaviour therapy

CCB

calcium channel blocker

CDT

combined diphtheria/tetanus vaccine

CHC

combined hormone contraception

CHD

coronary heart disease

CJD

Creutzfeldt Jakob disease

CK

creatinine kinase

CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

CMC

carpometacarpal

CMV

cytomegalovirus

co

compound

CNS

central nervous system

COC/COCP

combined oral contraceptive pill

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COX

cyclooxygenase

CPAP

continuous positive airway pressure

CPK

creatine phosphokinase

CR

controlled release

CRFM

chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria

CSFM

chloroquine-sensitive falciparum malaria

CT

computerised tomography

CTD

connective tissue disorder

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

CXR

chest X-ray

DABC

defibrillation, airway, breathing, circulation

DDH

developmental dysplasia of hip

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DIDA

duodenal iminodiacetic acid

DIP

distal interphalangeal

DOACs

direct oral anticoagulants

drug dosage

bd—twice daily; tid, tds—three times daily; qid, qds—four times daily

DRE

digital rectal examination

DS

double strength

dsDNA

double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid

DST

daylight savings time

DTP

diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis

DUB

dysfunctional uterine bleeding

DVT

deep venous thrombosis

EAR

expired air resuscitation

EBM

Epstein–Barr mononucleosis glandular fever

EBV

Epstein–Barr virus

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

eGFR

e glomerular filtration rate

ELISA

enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

esp.

especially

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

FBE

full blood count

FEV1

forced expiratory volume in 1 second

fl

femto-litre (10−15)

FOBT

faecal occult blood test

fna

fine needle aspiration

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone

FTT

failure to thrive

FUO

fever of undetermined origin

FVC

forced vital capacity

GABHS

group A betahaemolytic Streptococcus

GGT

gamma glutamyl transferase

GIT

gastrointestinal tract

GORD

gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

G6-PD

glucose–6–phosphate dehydrogenase

HAV

hepatitis A virus

HBsAg

hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HCG

human chorionic gonadotrophin

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HDL

high density lipoprotein

HDLC

high density lipoprotein cholesterol

HIDA

hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HLA-B27

human leucocyte antigen

HMG

hydroxymethyl-glutaryl

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

HSP

Henoch-schonlein purpura

HSV

herpes simplex virus

IA

intra-articular

ICT

immuno chromatographic test

IGRA

interferon gamma release assay

IHD

ischaemic heart disease

IM/IMI

intramuscular/intramuscular injection

INR

international normalised ratio

IOFB

intraocular foreign body

IR

internal rotation or immediate release

ITP

idiopathic thrombocytic purpura

IUCD

intrauterine contraceptive device

IUD

intrauterine device

IV

intravenous

IVF

in vitro fertilisation

KUB

kidney, ureter, bladder

LA

local anaesthetic

LAct

long-acting

LABA

long-acting beta antagonist

LAD

left anterior descending artery

LBC

liquid based cytology

LDLC

low density lipoprotein cholesterol

LFTs

liver function tests

LH

luteinising hormone

LHRH

luteinising hormone releasing hormone

LIF

left iliac fossa

LMW

low molecular weight

LRTI

lower respiratory tract infection

LUT

lower urinary tract

MAOI

monamine oxidase inhibitor

mcg

microgram (also μg)

MCU

microscopy and culture of urine

MCV

mean corpuscular volume

MI

myocardial infarction

MMSE

mini mental state examination

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MSST

maternal serum screening test

MSU

mid-stream urine

MTP

metatarsophalangeal

NAAT

nucleic acid amplification technology

NIPT

non-invasive prenatal test

NOACs

new oral anticoagulants

NR

normal range

NSAIDs

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

NSTEACS

non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome

NSU

non-specific urethritis

(o)

taken orally

OA

osteoarthritis

OGTT

oral glucose tolerance test

OP

outpatient

OTC

over-the-counter

PA

posterior anterior

Pap

Papanicolaou

PCOS

polycystic ovary syndrome

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PE

pulmonary embolism

PET

peak expiratory flow

PFT

pulmonary function test

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

PPI

proton-pump inhibitor

PR

per rectum

PRh

polymyalgia rheumatica

PSA

prostate specific antigen

PSVT

paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

RAP

recurrent abdominal pain

RCA

right coronary artery

RIB

rest in bed

RICE

rest, ice, compression, elevation

RIF

right iliac fossa

RSI

repetition strain injury

RSV

respiratory syncytial virus

SABA

short-acting beta antagonist

SAH

subarachnoid haemorrhage

SARS

sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome

SC/SCI

subcutaneous/subcutaneous injection

SCFE

slipped capital femoral epiphysis

SCG

sodium cromoglycate

SD

standard deviation/standard drink

SL

sublingual

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SOCRATES

site, onset, character, radiation, alleviating factors, severity (for pain)

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

STEMI

ST elevated myocardial infarction

STI

sexually transmitted infection

syn

synonymous

TA

temporal arteritis

TC

total cholesterol

TENS

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

TFT

thyroid function test

TG

triglyceride

TIA

transient ischaemic attack

time

s—second; min—minute; h—hour; d—day; wk—week; mth—month; y—year

TM

tympanic membrane

TMJ

temporomandibular joint

TOF

tracheo-oesophageal fistula

TORCH

toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

T3

tri-iodothyronine

T4

free thyroxine

UC

ulcerative colitis

URTI

upper respiratory tract infection

US

ultrasound

UT/UTI

urinary tract/urinary tract infection

VBI

vertobrobasilar insufficiency

VF

ventricular fibrillation

vWD

von Willibrand disease

WCC

white cell count

WHO

World Health Organization

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson White

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