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Abbreviations
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Triads and tetrads: these are a group of 3 or 4 key features (symptoms) that point to the probability diagnosis of a particular disorder. They permeate this book as a ‘trigger’ learning strategy.

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+ve positive
ve negative
increase
decrease
female
male
leading to/resulting in
± with or without
AAA aortic abdominal aneurysm
ac before meals
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACR albumin creatinine ratio
ACS acute coronary syndrome
ACTH andrenocorticotropic hormone
ADT adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine
AF atrial fibrillation
afb acid fast bacilli
aka also known as
ALL acute lymphocytic leukaemia
ALT alanine aminotransferase
ALTE apparent life-threatening episode
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AML acute myeloid leukaemia
ANA anti-nuclear antibodies
ANCA anti-neutrophil cyctoplasmic antibody
anv anorexia, nausea, vomiting
AOM acute otitis media
APF Australian pharmacy formulary
APTT activated partial thromboplastin time
ARB angiotensin 11 reuptake blocker
ARC AIDS-related complex
ASAP as soon as possible
ATSIP Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
AV atrioventricular
BMD bone mass density
BOO bladder outlet obstruction
BMI body mass index
CABG coronary artery bypass grafting
CBT cognitive behaviour therapy
CCB calcium channel blocker
CDT combined diphtheria/tetanus vaccine
CHC combined hormone contraception
CHD coronary heart disease
CJD Creutzfeldt Jakob disease
CK creatinine kinase
CLL chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
CMC carpometacarpal
CMV cytomegalovirus
co compound
CNS central nervous system
COC/COCP combined oral contraceptive pill
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COX cyclooxygenase
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
CPK creatine phosphokinase
CR controlled release
CRFM chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria
CSFM chloroquine-sensitive falciparum malaria
CT computerised tomography
CTD connective tissue disorder
CXR chest X-ray
DABC defibrillation, airway, breathing, circulation
DDH developmental dysplasia of hip
DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
DIDA duodenal iminodiacetic acid
DIP distal interphalangeal
drug dosage bd—twice daily; tid, tds—three times daily; qid, qds—four times daily
DRE digital rectal examination
DS double strength
dsDNA double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid
DST daylight savings time
DTP diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
DUB dysfunctional uterine bleeding
DVT deep venous thrombosis
EAR expired air resuscitation
EBM Epstein–Barr mononucleosis glandular fever
EBV Epstein–Barr virus
ECT electroconvulsive therapy
eGFR e glomerular filtration rate
ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
esp. especially
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FBE full blood count
FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second
fl femto-litre (10−15)
FOBT faecal occult blood test
fna fine needle aspiration
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
FTT failure to thrive
FUO fever of undetermined origin
FVC forced vital capacity
GABHS group A betahaemolytic Streptococcus
GGT gamma glutamyl transferase
GIT gastrointestinal tract
GORD gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
G6-PD glucose–6–phosphate dehydrogenase
HAV hepatitis A virus
HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen
HBV hepatitis B virus
HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin
HCV hepatitis C virus
HDL high density lipoprotein
HDLC high density lipoprotein cholesterol
HIDA hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HLA-B27 human leucocyte antigen
HMG hydroxymethyl-glutaryl
HRT hormone replacement therapy
HSV herpes simplex virus
IA intra-articular
ICT immuno chromatographic test
IGRA interferon gamma release assay
IHD ischaemic heart disease
IM/IMI intramuscular/intramuscular injection
INR international normalised ratio
IOFB intraocular foreign body
IR internal rotation
ITP idiopathic thrombocytic purpura
IUCD intrauterine contraceptive device
IUD intrauterine device
IV intravenous
IVF in vitro fertilisation
LA local anaesthetic
LAct long-acting
LABA long-acting beta antagonist
LAD left anterior descending artery
LDLC low density lipoprotein cholesterol
LFTs liver function tests
LH luteinising hormone
LHRH luteinising hormone releasing hormone
LIF left iliac fossa
LMW low molecular weight
LRTI lower respiratory tract infection
LUT lower urinary tract
MAOI monamine oxidase inhibitor
mcg microgram (also µg)
MCU microscopy and culture of urine
MCV mean corpuscular volume
MI myocardial infarction
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MSST maternal serum screening test
MSU mid-stream urine
MTP metatarsophalangeal
NAAT nucleic acid amplification technology
NOACs new oral anticoagulants
NR normal range
NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSTEACS non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome
NSU non-specific urethritis
(o) taken orally
OA osteoarthritis
OGTT oral glucose tolerance test
OP outpatient
OTC over-the-counter
PA posterior anterior
Pap Papanicolaou
PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PE pulmonary embolism
PET peak expiratory flow
PFT pulmonary function test
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PPI proton-pump inhibitor
PR per rectum
PRh polymyalgia rheumatica
PSA prostate specific antigen
PSVT paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
RAP recurrent abdominal pain
RCA right coronary artery
RIB rest in bed
RICE rest, ice, compression, elevation
RIF right iliac fossa
RSI repetition strain injury
RSV respiratory syncytial virus
SABA short-acting beta antagonist
SAH subarachnoid haemorrhage
SARS sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome
SC/SCI subcutaneous/subcutaneous injection
SCFE slipped capital femoral epiphysis
SCG sodium cromoglycate
SD standard deviation/standard drink
SL sublingual
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
SOCRATES site, onset, character, radiation, alleviating factors, severity (for pain)
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
STEMI ST elevated myocardial infarction
STI sexually transmitted infection
syn synonymous
TA temporal arteritis
TC total cholesterol
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TFT thyroid function test
TG triglyceride
TIA transient ischaemic attack
time s—second; min—minute; h—hour; d—day; wk—week; mth—month; y—year
TM tympanic membrane
TMJ temporomandibular joint
TOF tracheo-oesophageal fistula
TORCH toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
T3 tri-iodothyronine
T4 free thyroxine
UC ulcerative colitis
URTI upper respiratory tract infection
US ultrasound
UT/UTI urinary tract/urinary tract infection
VBI vertobrobasilar insufficiency
VF ventricular fibrillation
vWD von Willibrand disease
WCC white cell count
WHO World Health Organization
WPW Wolff-Parkinson White

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