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Laboratory refe..
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These reference values and ranges are given in the system of international units (SI) and may vary from laboratory to laboratory.

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An asterisk (*) indicates that paediatric reference ranges differ from the adult range given.

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Electrolytes/renal
Sodium 135–145 mmol/L
Potassium* 3.5–5.0 mmol/L
Chloride 95–110 mmol/L
Bicarbonate 23–32 mmol/L
Urea 3–8.0 mmol/L
Creatinine ♀ 50–110; ♂ 60–120 µmol/L
eGFR <60 mL/min/1.72 m2
Calcium* 2.10–2.60 mmol/L (total)
Phosphate 0.90–1.35 mmol/L
Magnesium* 0.65–1.00 mmol/L
Uric acid* ♀ 0.12–0.40; ♂ 0.15–0.45 mmol/L
Liver function/pancreas
Bilirubin* <20 µmol/L (total)
<3 µmol/L (direct)
AST* <40 U/L
GGT* ♀ <30; ♂ <50 U/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)* 25–100 U/L
Total protein 60–80 g/L
Albumin 38–50 g/L
Amylase 30–110 U/L
Lipase <100 U/L
Cardiac/lipids
Troponin I or T <0.1 ug/L
CK total ♀ <200; ♂ <220 U/L
CK-MB <25 U/L
Cholesterol* <5.5 mmol/L
Triglycerides* <1.7 mmol/L
HDL cholesterol ♀ 1–2.2; ♂ 0.9–2.0 mmol/L
LDL cholesterol 2–3.4 mmol/L
Thyroid tests
Free T4 10.0–25.0 pmol/L
Ultra–sensitive TSH* 0.4–5.0 mU/L
Free T3 3.3–8.2 pmol/L
Other endocrine tests
s Cortisol 8 am 130–700 nmol/L
4 pm 80–350 nmol/L
FSH 1–9 IU/L (adult ♀)
10–30 IU/L (ovulation)
4–200 IU/L (postmenopausal)
Oestradiol menopausal <200 pmol/L
Testosterone ♀ <3.5; ♂ 10–35 nmol/L
Tumour markers
PSA 0–1.0 mcg/L
CEA <7.5 mcg/L
AFT <10 mcg/mL
CA–125 <35 U/mL
Iron studies
Ferritin ♀ 15–200; ♂ 30–300 mcg/L
Iron 10–30 µmol/L
Iron–binding capacity 45–80 µmol/L
Transferrin 2–3.5 g/L
Transferrin saturation ♀ 15–45%; ♂ 15–55%
Blood gases/arterial
pH* 7.38–7.43
PaO2* 85–105 mmHg
PaCO2* 36–44 mmHg
Bicarbonate* 20–28 mmol/L
Base excess* −3 to +3 mmol/L
Glucose
Glucose fasting 3–5.4 mmol/L
Glucose random 3–7.7 mmol/L
HbA1c 4.7–6.1%
Haematology
Hb* ♀ 115–165; ♂ 130–180 g/L
PCV* ♀ 37–47; ♂ 40–54%
MCV* 80–100 fL
Reticulocytes 0.5–2.0%
White cells 4.0–11.0 × 109/L
Platelets 150–400 × 109/L
ESR <20 mm; <35mm if >70 years
Band neutrophils* (0.05 × 109/L)
Mature neutrophils* (2.0–7.5 × 109/L)
Lymphocytes* (1.0–4.0 × 109/L)
Monocytes* (0.2–0.8 × 109/L)
Eosinophils* (0.0–0.4 × 109/L)
Folate serum 7–45 nmol/L, red cell 360–1400 nmol/L
s Vitamin B12 (150–700 pmol/L)
Coagulation
Bleeding time 2.0–8.5 min
Fibrinogen 2.0–4.0 g/L
Prothrombin time sec.
Prothrombin ratio INR 1.0–1.2
APTT 25–35 sec
D-dimer <500 mg/mL
Others
s Creatine phospho kinase <90 U/L
s Lead 2 mcg/L
s C–reactive protein <10 mg/L
Vitamin D >75 mmol/L

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